*40*

A **five number summary **is a way to summarize a dataset using the following five values:

- The minimum
- The first quartile
- The median
- The third quartile
- The maximum

The five number summary is useful because it provides a concise summary of the distribution of the data in the following ways:

- It tells us where the middle value is located, using the median.
- It tells us how spread out the data is, using the first and third quartiles.
- It tells us the range of the data, using the minimum and the maximum.

By simply knowing these five values, we can know a great deal about a dataset.

**How to Find a Five Number Summary in Google Sheets**

We can use the following steps to find the five number summary of a dataset in Google Sheets:

**Step 1: Enter all data values in one column.**

First, enter the values of the dataset in one column:

**Step 2: Calculate the five number summary.**

The five values of the five number summary are shown in column D and the formulas used to find these values are shown in column E:

Thus, the five number summary of this dataset is:

- Minimum:
**4** - 1st Quartile:
**7.5** - Median:
**17** - 3rd Quartile:
**22** - Maximum:
**28**

From these five numbers we can get a good idea of where the center of the dataset is located, how spread out the values are, and the range of values.

Technical Note:

There are two quartile functions in Google Sheets:

QUARTILE.INC()– Calculates percentiles using “greater than or equal to” in an “inclusive” manner.

QUARTILE.EXC()– Calculates percentiles using “greater than” in an “exclusive” manner.

The default function

QUARTILE()uses theQUARTILE.INC()method.

**Visualize a Five Number Summary**

One of the easiest ways to visualize a five number summary is by creating a boxplot, which uses a box with a line in the middle along with “whiskers” that extend on each end to represent the minimum and maximum values.

Feel free to use the Statology Boxplot Generator to automatically create a boxplot for a given dataset.

You can also follow this tutorial to find out how to create a boxplot in Google Sheets for a given dataset.