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There are two common ways to use the **geom_bar()** function in ggplot2 to create bar charts:

**Method 1: Use geom_bar()**

ggplot(df, aes(x)) + geom_bar()

By default, **geom_bar()** will simply count the occurrences of each unique value for the x variable and use bars to display the counts.

**Method 2: Use geom_bar(stat=”identity”)**

ggplot(df, aes(x, y)) + geom_bar(stat="identity")

If you provide the argument **stat=”identity”** to **geom_bar()** then you’re telling R to calculate the sum of the y variable, grouped by the x variable and use bars to display the sums.

The following examples illustrate the difference between these two methods using the following data frame in R that shows the points scored by basketball players on various teams:

#create data frame df frame(team=rep(c('A', 'B', 'C'), each=4), points=c(3, 5, 5, 6, 5, 7, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 8)) #view data frame df team points 1 A 3 2 A 5 3 A 5 4 A 6 5 B 5 6 B 7 7 B 7 8 B 8 9 C 9 10 C 9 11 C 9 12 C 8

**Example 1: Using geom_bar()**

The following code shows how to use the **geom_bar()** function to create a bar chart that displays the count of each unique value in the **team** column:

library(ggplot2) #create bar chart to visualize occurrence of each unique value in team column ggplot(df, aes(team)) + geom_bar()

The x-axis displays the unique values in the **team** column and the y-axis displays the number of times each unique value occurred.

Since each unique value occurred 4 times, the height of each bar is 4 in the plot.

**Example 2: Using geom_bar(stat=”identity”)**

The following code shows how to use the **geom_bar()** function with the **stat=”identity”** argument to create a bar chart that displays the sum of values in the **points** column, grouped by **team**:

library(ggplot2) #create bar chart to visualize sum of points, grouped by team ggplot(df, aes(team, points)) + geom_bar(stat="identity")

The x-axis displays the unique values in the **team** column and the y-axis displays the sum of the values in the **points** column for each team.

For example:

- The sum of points for team
**A**is 19. - The sum of points for team
**B**is 27. - The sum of points for team
**C**is 35.

By using **stat=”identity”** in the** geom_bar()** function, we’re able to display the sum of values for a particular variable in our data frame instead of counts.

**Note**: For **stat=”identity”** to work properly, you must provide both an x variable and a y variable in the **aes()** argument.

**Additional Resources**

The following tutorials explain how to perform other common tasks in ggplot2:

How to Adjust Space Between Bars in ggplot2

How to Remove NAs from Plot in ggplot2

How to Change Colors of Bars in Stacked Bart Chart in ggplot2