*202*

**Probability** describes the likelihood that some event occurs.

We can calculate probabilities in Excel by using the PROB function, which uses the following syntax:

**PROB(x_range, prob_range, lower_limit, [upper_limit])**

where:

**x_range:**The range of numeric x values.**prob_range:**The range of probabilities associated with each x value.**lower_limit:**The lower limit on the value for which you want a probability.**upper_limit:**The upper limit on the value for which you want a probability. Optional.

This tutorial provides several examples of how to use this function in practice.

**Example 1: Dice Probabilities**

The following image shows the probability of a dice landing on a certain value on a given roll:

*Since the dice is equally likely to land on each value, the probability is the same for each value.*

The following image shows how to find the probability that the dice lands on a number between 3 and 6:

The probability turns out to beÂ **0.5**.

Note that the upper limit argument is optional. So, we could use the following syntax to find the probability that the dice lands on just 4:

The probability turns out to beÂ **0.166667**.

**Example 2: Sales Probabilities**

The following image shows the probability of a company selling a certain number of products in the upcoming quarter:

The following image shows how to find the probability that the company makes either 3 or 4 sales:

The probability turns out to beÂ **0.7**.

**Additional Resources**

How to Calculate Relative Frequency in Excel

How to Calculate Cumulative Frequency in Excel

How to Create a Frequency Distribution in Excel