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AÂ repeated measures ANOVAÂ is used to determine whether or not there is a statistically significant difference between the means of three or more groups in which the same subjects show up in each group.

This tutorial explains how to conduct a one-way repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS.

**Example: Repeated Measures ANOVA in SPSS**

Researchers want to know if four different drugs lead to different reaction times. To test this, they measure the reaction time of five patients on the four different drugs. Since each patient is measured on each of the four drugs, we will use a repeated measures ANOVA to determine if the mean reaction time differs between drugs.

Perform the following steps to conduct the repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS.

**Step 1: Enter the data.**

Enter the following data, which shows the response time (in seconds) of five patients on the four drugs:

**Step 2: Perform a repeated measures ANOVA.**

Click theÂ **AnalyzeÂ **tab, thenÂ **General Linear Model**, thenÂ **Repeated Measures**:

In the new window that pops up, type in theÂ **drugÂ **for the Within-Subject Factor Name. Type inÂ **4Â **for the Number of Levels (since each subject in the study tested 4 different drugs), then clickÂ **Add**.Â Type inÂ **responseTimeÂ **for theÂ **Measure Name**, then clickÂ **Add**. Lastly, clickÂ **Define**.

In the new window that pops up, drag each of the four drug variables into the box labelledÂ **Within-Subjects Variables**:

Next, clickÂ **Plots**. Drag the variableÂ **drugÂ **into the box labelledÂ **Horizontal Axis**. Then clickÂ **Add**. Then clickÂ **Continue**.

Next, clickÂ **EM Means**. Drag the variableÂ **drugÂ **into the box labelledÂ **Display Means for**. Then check the box next toÂ **Compare main effectsÂ **and selectÂ **Bonferroni** from the dropdown menu. Then click **Continue**.

Lastly, clickÂ **OK**.

**Step 2: Interpret the results.**

Once you clickÂ **OK**, the results of the repeated measures ANOVA will appear. Here is how to interpret the output:

**Tests of Within-Subjects Effects**

This table displays the overall F-statistic and the corresponding p-value of the repeated measures ANOVA. Typically we use the values in the row titledÂ **Greenhouse-Geisser**.

According to this row, the F-statistic isÂ **24.759Â **and the corresponding p-value isÂ **.001**. Since this p-value is less than .05, we can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a statistically significant difference in mean response times between the four drugs.

**Pairwise Comparisons**

Since we rejected the null hypothesis, it means that at least two of the group means are different. To determine which group means are different, we can use this table that displays the pairwise comparisons between each drug.Â

From the table we can see the p-values for the following comparisons:

- drug 1 vs. drug 2 | p-value =Â
**1.000** - drug 1 vs. drug 3 | p-value =Â
**.083** - drug 1 vs. drug 4 | p-value =Â
**.010** - drug 2 vs. drug 3 | p-value =Â
**.071** - drug 2 vs. drug 4 | p-value =Â
**.097** - drug 3 vs. drug 4 | p-value =
**.011**

The only p-values below .05 are for drug 1 vs. drug 4 and drug 3 vs. drug 4. All of the other comparisons have p-values greater than .05.

**Plot of Estimated Marginal Means**

This plot displays the estimated mean response times for each drug. From the plot we can clearly see that response times varied noticeably between the four different drugs:

**Step 3: Report the results.**

Lastly, we can report the results of the repeated measures ANOVA. Here is an example of how to do so:

A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine if the mean reaction time in patients differed between four different drugs.

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A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the type of drug used lead to statistically significant differences in response time (F = 24.75887, p = 0.001).

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Bonferroniâ€™s test for multiple comparisons found that there was a statistically significant difference in response times between patients onÂ drug 1 vs. drug 4 along with drug 3 vs. drug 4.